Libmonster ID: KG-670
Author(s) of the publication: G. M. LOKSHIN

Key words: 2nd RUSSIA-ASEAN Summit, , 5th East Asia Summit

G. M. LOKSHIN

Candidate of Historical Sciences

At the end of October 2010, Hanoi, which was dressed up for its just-passed millennial anniversary, warmly welcomed distinguished guests. The 17th Summit of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)was held in the Vietnamese capital*. Traditionally, ASEAN summits with its dialogue partners in various formats, both bilaterally and multilaterally, were held simultaneously with the meeting of the leaders of the Association countries in Hanoi. These are the ASEAN - China, ASEAN - Japan, ASEAN - India, ASEAN - USA, ASEAN - China, Japan and South Korea summits, the East Asia Summit (ASEAN - China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand), etc. (total-11). During such meetings, the most important problems of the region and the world were discussed.

A significant event was the 2nd Russia-ASEAN Summit with the participation of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, during which a Joint Statement was signed.

This document emphasized that the Russian Federation and ASEAN have established mutually beneficial cooperation in a wide range of areas and have moved to the practical implementation of joint projects.1

"FROM DESIGN TO ACTION"

The 17th ASEAN Summit, held at the Mi Dinh State Congress Palace, summed up the results of the year that Vietnam has presided over.

The heads of State of the region reviewed and approved numerous projects developed during the year by ministers and heads of various departments. (According to the ASEAN Charter, the summits are held twice a year-in spring and autumn: the first is devoted to the problems of building the ASEAN Community, which is scheduled to be completed in 2015, and the second is devoted to regional problems and cooperation of the Association with dialogue partners.)

Effective in 2008. Charter (s) ASEAN has begun a new stage of qualitative transformation of the organization into an effective structure with a full-scale international legal status**. Its political authority and ability to solve various problems, including in the field of security, are gradually growing. Economic, cultural, and educational opportunities are also expanding.

The slogan of the year that passed under the Vietnamese presidency was the call: Towards the ASEAN Community: from Vision to Action-

Created in 1967, ASEAN has grown over the past decades into an authoritative alliance of 10 countries with a population of about 600 million people and a combined GDP of more than $1.5 trillion. The Association has become an example of successful regional integration outside the European Union and, what is particularly interesting and important, it is being built on a fundamentally different basis.

The main difference between the Association and the European Union is the absence of any supranational institutions. All countries are unwilling to sacrifice even the slightest bit of their sovereignty.

At the same time, they are clearly focused on rapprochement with each other in order to achieve common goals and, above all, to counter the negative manifestations of the inexorable process of globalization. Hence the emphasis on developing intra-group political, trade, economic, cultural and other ties. For this purpose, the member States of the organization are ready, albeit slowly and cautiously, to grant each other special rights, benefits and privileges on a mutual basis, creating free trade zones, concluding customs unions and participating in various infrastructure and other projects.

It is no coincidence that in the scientific community this process is increasingly called not" integration", but "regionalization", which more accurately expresses its essence.


* ASEAN is a political, economic and cultural regional intergovernmental organization of countries located in Southeast Asia (SE). It includes Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

** For more information, see: Mosyakov D. V. ASEAN at the Crossroads / / Asia and Africa Today, 2009, N 11.

page 2

ям!" (Towards ASEAN Community: From Vision to Action).

The Hanoi summit was a fitting end to this year.

A number of important decisions were taken to complete the ASEAN Community in 2015. It, in turn, should consist of communities in three areas-security, economic and socio-cultural development.

A special place is occupied by the Master Plan for the Development of communication Relations of the Association, developed with the help of the Asian Development Bank, the Institute for Economic Research for ASEAN in Tokyo and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).

The plan provides for the construction of roads, reconstruction of port facilities, laying a gas pipeline, a network of power lines, fiber-optic cable networks and other projects. These projects are designed to qualitatively strengthen the communication connectivity of the ASEAN countries and reduce the existing gap in the level of economic development between the old and new members of the Association (the latter include Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos).

This is the largest joint project in the entire history of the organization, aimed at developing the infrastructure of the entire region, deepening the interconnectedness of its various communication systems, and creating additional opportunities for citizens of these countries to communicate.

A COMPROMISE APPROACH TO THE "ISLANDS OF DISCORD"

The strengthening of ASEAN cohesion has also allowed progress to be made on such a complex issue in the region as the disputed territories in the South China Sea.*

Already at the April 2010 Hanoi Summit, for the first time after a long break, all ASEAN members came together to call for the rapid transformation of the Declaration on Principles of Conduct for Parties in the South China Sea, signed in Phnom Penh in 2002 by the ASEAN countries and China, into a Code of Conduct that excludes the use of force or threat of force in resolving emerging territorial disputes and ensures that safety of navigation and sea use.

In the six months since then, this position has been recorded twice more: at the ASEAN Regional Security Forum (ARF) in July 2010 and at the meeting of ASEAN Defense Ministers and dialogue Partner States in October 2010.

In Beijing, the problems of the South China Sea are considered "key to China's interests", but previously their solution was supposed to be sought only in bilateral negotiations with each interested country separately. By the time of the Hanoi summit, this position had changed somewhat.

In a written Statement issued by the Prime Minister of Vietnam, Nguyen Tan Dung, Chairman of the ASEAN-China Summit on October 29, 2010, speaking on behalf of all participants in the summit, it is stated:: "We (i.e., the PRC and ASEAN, in contrast to a number of other points of the Statement, in which the position of either the Association or the PRC is fixed. They reaffirmed their commitment to fully and effectively implement the Declaration on Principles of Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea and their commitment to adopt the Code of Conduct for the South China Sea by agreement, thereby contributing to the maintenance of peace, stability and cooperation in the region."2. China has previously expressed no agreement with the ASEAN position on this issue.

In the Action Plan for the implementation of the Joint China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership Statement 2011-2015, the two sides committed to fully and effectively implement the 2002 Declaration on Principles of Conduct in the South China Sea. They also expressed their desire to maintain stability and


* For more information, see: Lokshin G. M. Clouds move gloomily over the Eastern Sea / / Asia and Africa Today, 2010, No. 8 (note). ed.).

page 3

Develop cooperation, including the regular holding of long-delayed meetings of senior officials and the joint working group on the implementation of the Declaration, and work towards the conclusion of a Code of Conduct in the South China Sea based on consultation and consensus.3 They emphasized their mutual readiness to contribute in every possible way to confidence-building through cooperation based on the principles of the 2002 Declaration for the peaceful resolution of territorial and legal problems, as stipulated in this document, the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and other instruments of the International Maritime Organization.*

In this regard, it was decided to resume the interrupted consultations in the framework of the Working Group on Monitoring the Implementation of the 2002 Declaration in the near future.

During a bilateral meeting between the two premiers, which was also held in Hanoi on October 29, 2010, Chinese State Council President Wen Jiabao called for a just solution to sovereignty issues in the South China Sea. Noting that Vietnam and China have already established a negotiating framework to resolve the issue, he expressed hope that the two countries will discuss it and sign an agreement on basic principles aimed at resolving the issue in the near future4. The Chinese leader also spoke about the friendship and cooperation on which relations between the two countries are built, and about the readiness of the People's Republic of China to maintain these relations at the highest level. He stressed the importance of creating a hotline between the leaders of both countries, strengthening contacts between various ministries and departments "in order to strengthen mutual trust and resolve all disputed issues in a reasonable way in mutual interests."

The next day, at the East Asia Summit, Wen Jiabao delivered a speech that was hailed in Southeast Asia as significantly more "constructive and open to cooperation" than previous tough statements by Chinese foreign and defense ministers at forums in Hanoi earlier in 2010.

Many observers in Southeast Asia attribute a certain softening of Beijing's position to the fact that this time it had to deal with ASEAN, which is more united than before on the issue of disputed islands. Vietnam's diplomacy has had its say in this, and it has managed to influence the position of the Philippines, Indonesia, Cambodia and Myanmar, which previously objected to discussing these issues within the Association.

This is the opinion of a well-known expert on regional issues, Professor of the Australian Defense Institute K. Thayer. While noting that the Association is becoming more united on disputes in the South China Sea, he cautions that "in the future, it will need even closer cooperation with dialogue partners in order to really effectively limit the ability of other States to use force or threaten to use it in the region." 5

RUSSIA-ASEAN COOPERATION: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

For Russia, developing ties with the Asia-Pacific region (APAC), an important part of which is made up of the countries of ASEAN and all of East Asia, is of particular political and economic importance. They are designed to help create favorable conditions both for ensuring the security of the Russian Federation and its most important communications, and for modernizing the entire region of Eastern Siberia and the Far East.

The outcome of the second ASEAN-Russia Summit with the participation of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was a further convergence of the two sides ' assessments and approaches to more important issues.-


* The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes cooperation and exchange of information on maritime transport and trade. Its activities are aimed at eliminating discriminatory actions affecting international commercial shipping, as well as the adoption of standards to ensure maritime safety and prevent pollution from ships of the environment, primarily marine (editor's note).

page 4

global and regional problems. This meeting took place after a five-year break after the first summit in Kuala Lumpur in December 2005, which made it particularly significant for both sides, especially since this time the summit was held in such a traditionally friendly country of Russia as Vietnam.

The leaders of the Russian Federation and the Association countries decided to work closely with each other in shaping the regional architecture in the Asia-Pacific region. "The successful construction of a new Asia-Pacific home meets the interests of all countries and their aspirations to develop a peaceful and creative life. I would like to emphasize once again that Russia is open to such cooperation (this is already our second meeting in this format), including the creation of various alliances in order to modernize economies, develop inter-civilizational dialogue and combat new and persistent old threats."6

The Joint Statement adopted by the summit shows that the ASEAN partners agreed that the regional architecture should be based on the principles of collectivity, multilateralism and equality, on generally accepted norms of international law, as Russian diplomacy has repeatedly stated over the years. At the same time, they noted that any new entities or cooperation mechanisms in the region can only complement and be built on the basis of existing structures and on the principle of "ASEAN-centricity" while maintaining the central role of ASEAN. This position was fully agreed by the Russian side: the Joint Statement stressed "the importance of preserving the central role of ASEAN in the emerging open, transparent and inclusive regional architecture."

In particular, paragraph 15 of the Joint Statement shows that the Russian participants in the summit understand the specifics of the political situation in the region and the nature of relations between states that have developed there on the basis of the time-tested and compromise-oriented "ASEAN method". It reads :" We believe that international security is indivisible and comprehensive, and we are also convinced that the security of some States cannot be ensured at the expense of the security of others. We stressed the need to fully respect and take into account the legitimate interests and concerns of all States, their domestic laws and regulations."7. These clear statements are particularly important for ASEAN leaders, both in the context of the difficult situation in the South China Sea and due to pressure from certain circles in the West.

The second Russia - ASEAN summit once again confirmed that the prospects for developing cooperation between Russia and the countries of this organization are generally favorable.

With them, the Russian Federation has not had and does not have any contradictions and conflicts of interests. Moreover, Russia, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, has a number of important moral and political advantages over other partners of this organization. There have never been any wars or conflicts between Russia and the ASEAN countries. The New Russia has never interfered in their internal affairs or complicated the situation in Southeast Asia, including on such sensitive issues as human rights, territorial and inter-religious conflicts.

According to Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov ," Russia and ASEAN are organically suited to each other as partners. We equally need peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Russia does not claim military superiority, nor does it set itself the task of ensuring the security of its eastern borders at the expense of weakening the security of other states. We have no plans to create military bases in the Asia-Pacific region, and we do not cooperate with other countries

page 5

a region of closed defense alliances. We do not intend to compete with anyone else in the struggle for spheres of influence. Our desire to strengthen cooperation with ASEAN, including in the field of security, is not directed against third countries. " 8

Russia's cooperation with Southeast Asian countries is most successfully developing in the political sphere. Russia has repeatedly demonstrated its attitude towards ASEAN as one of the influential centers of the modern world and its interest in a strong and sustainable Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We share common positions on most current and international issues. And this is clearly confirmed by more than 15 years of experience of Russia's active participation in the activities of the ARF.

At the same time, Russia's economic presence in Southeast Asia, both in the sphere of trade and investment, and in other areas of economic, scientific and technical cooperation, is still small. Russia is seriously lagging behind such powerful economic partners in the region as the United States, China or Japan. In 2009, the volume of mutual trade with the ASEAN countries was estimated at $6.8 billion. up to $10 billion 9.

Moreover, the commodity structure of Russia's trade with the Association countries remains extremely poorly diversified, and the share of value-added products is insignificant. It affects mainly the raw material nature of the economy of the Far Eastern Federal District. Geographical remoteness and the poor state of transport infrastructure are a serious obstacle to a decisive breakthrough in this direction.

At the same time, the Russian Federation has its own competitive advantages. Among them, first of all, are nuclear energy, military-technical cooperation, space research, as well as opportunities for large Russian investors interested in foreign expansion.

The past five years since the first summit have not been a waste of time. Over the years, a solid legal framework has been created for the comprehensive development of cooperation in strengthening regional security, especially in terms of "non-traditional threats": combating terrorism and piracy, cross-border crime, preventing and eliminating the consequences of natural disasters, etc. The problems of expanding trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural cooperation have also remained in the focus of attention of the parties over all these years.

At the second summit, the heads of state approved the Working Program of Russia-ASEAN Energy Cooperation for 2010-2015 in key areas, including both oil and gas production and the production of renewable energy, including nuclear energy.

Russia also expressed its readiness to assist in the implementation of the program ("road map") for building the ASEAN economic community, which will create greater business opportunities in the region. The parties planned to expand cooperation in industrial construction, in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, in research and development work in various energy sectors and in other areas. They agreed to continue searching for opportunities to deepen cooperation and develop the contractual framework in various economic areas of mutual interest, and concluded an agreement on cultural cooperation.

Recently, the expert community of Russia and a number of countries of the Association has raised the issue of creating a free Trade zone between them. The joint Statement in this regard cautiously states that the parties agreed to actively promote "exploring the possibility" of concluding a free trade agreement as soon as possible between the member states of the Customs Union within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Community (Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan) and Vietnam in the context of Russia's upcoming accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), which was supported by participants of the second summit. Such a cautious formulation is obviously dictated by the fact that this issue still requires additional study, primarily by the relevant Russian agencies. In practical terms, it can become relevant only after a significant increase in the volume of mutual trade turnover.

One of the problems of Russia's relations with ASEAN is that the broad public and business communities of Russia and the Association countries do not have enough information about each other, and there is almost no developed system of communication and contacts at different levels. At the Hanoi summit, both sides expressed their conviction that in order to achieve a new level of trade and economic cooperation, it is necessary to develop direct contacts between business circles. In this regard, they highly appreciated the past business forums and agreed to hold them every time "on the sidelines" of the Russia - ASEAN summits, and the Association will invite Russian businessmen to its business and investment summits.

Russia does not have the same ties in the region (with the exception of Vietnam) that the United States, China, and Japan have. At the same time, we are talking not so much about political contacts at the leadership level, which have developed significantly in recent years, but rather about cooperation between non-governmental organizations and the scientific community.

page 6

In this regard, great hopes are pinned on the ASEAN Center established in the summer of 2010 at the MGIMO University of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.

RUSSIA WILL BECOME A FULL MEMBER OF THE EAC SUMMITS

The Southeast Asian Region framework has long been tight for ASEAN, which positions itself as an active supporter of integration throughout East Asia.

At the ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur in 2005, it was decided to create a regional organization with broad powers - the East Asian Community (EAC). Now the concept of this community is still being developed. The development of relations in the China - Japan - US triangle will be crucial.

At the same time, the institution of the East Asia Summit (EAS) has become quite firmly established. Since 2005, such meetings have been held annually. As noted above, in addition to the ASEAN countries, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand participate in them. These summits serve as a useful mechanism for moving towards the creation of an East Asian Community.

By the time of the Hanoi summit, Russian diplomacy, with the active support of Vietnam, had removed all doubts and even objections of some ASEAN countries, as well as Japan and Australia, regarding Russia's interest in cooperation with all East Asian states expressed back in 2005 on the platform of the annual East Asian summits.

The United States was not invited to these summits either. But there was such a serious reason for this as Washington's long-standing reluctance to sign the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (the Bali Treaty) of 1976.*

Only in the summer of 2009, US Secretary of State H. Clinton announced that the United States would join the Treaty.

The April 2010 summit in Hanoi was followed by an invitation to the Presidents of Russia and the United States to participate in the upcoming 5th East Asia Summit in October 2010 as guests of the summit's chairman. And at the summit itself in October 2010, based on the principles of openness, transparency and openness to the admission of new members, as well as the interest of Russia and the United States in joining the East Asia summit process, all 16 participants of these summits decided to officially invite Russia and the United States to participate in them as full members of this forum, starting in 2011. It was noted that the participation of the Russian Federation and the United States in the EAC will contribute to the achievement of the goals, principles and priorities of the 10 summits.

This decision is one of the most important political outcomes of the 5th East Asia Summit. It responds to the repeatedly expressed desire of our country, as a major regional Power, to actively participate in the creation of a modern architecture of security and cooperation in East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region based on the principles of ASEAN and on equal terms with other participants.

On the occasion of the 5th anniversary of the East Asia Summits, the goals and principles of the East Asia summits were reaffirmed and the Hanoi Declaration was unanimously adopted, which supported the position of ASEAN on building a regional architecture based on the development of existing cooperation forums in the region and ensuring the central role of ASEAN.11

What trends will prevail in the Asia-Pacific region and East Asia, and how they will relate to the national interests of our country, largely depends on how relations between Russia and ASEAN will develop in the future.


* The 1976 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (the Bali Treaty), together with the ASEAN Declaration of Consent signed at the same time, forms the treaty basis of the Association. It allows for non-regional States to join the organization, provided that they comply with the principles of mutual relations adopted in ASEAN. These principles provide for mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of each nation, the right to non-interference in the internal affairs of the State, non-use of coercive methods in international relations, peaceful resolution of conflicts, etc. ed.).

1 Official website of the President of the Russian Federation. Joint statement on the results of the Second ASEAN-Russian Federation Summit. 30.10.2010 - http://news.kremlin.ru/ref_no-tes/761

2 Chairman's Statement of the 13th ASEAN-China Summit. Ha Noi, 29.10.2010 - http://asean2010.vn/asean_en/news/48/2DA9EE/Chairmans-Statement-of-the-13th-A SEAN-China-Summit

3 The gioi & Viet Nam, 30.10.2010.

4 Ibidem.

5 1.10.2010 - www.vietnamnet.vn

6 Official website of the President of the Russian Federation. Speech at the second Russia-ASEAN Summit. 30.10.2010 - http://www.kremlin.ru/transcripts/9380

7 Official website of the President of the Russian Federation. Joint Statement of the Russian Federation-ASEAN. Edict op.

Sergey Lavrov, 8 Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia. Russia and ASEAN can do a lot together / / Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn, 2010, No. 10.

9 Table19. ASEAN Trade by Selected Partner Country / Region, 2009/15 April 2010-http/ / www. aseansec. org / stat/Table19. pdf; Lavrov S. Decree. Op.

10 Ha Noi Declaration on the commemoration of the fifth anniversary of the EAST ASIA summit. 30.10.2010 - http://asean2010.vn/asean_en/news/48/2DAA10/Ha-Noi-Declaration-on-the-commem oration-of-the-fifth-anniversary-of-the-EAST-ASIA-summit

11 Ibidem.


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